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To assist in making accurate cuts, Eggen likes to draw a chart on the worktable, using a protractor to mark lines in 15-degree increments. The vertical lines extending upward from the X-axis help determine the radius of the cuts. Eggen then uses a U-shaped straightedge to mark the location of the cut on the pie and to ensure that the cuts are square. Without using a similar technique, he says that the openings of the pipes will not be perfectly circular, making them difficult to weld together.